In our past, our planet suffered several global climate changes that affected its relief and variety of life forms. These processes continue, the climate on Earth is changing noticeably: some countries suffer from anomalous heat, others from too harsh and snowy winters, unusual for these places.
Environmentalists talk about global climate change, including an increase in the average annual temperature causing melting of glaciers, and an increase in the level of the worlds oceans. In addition to warming, there is also an unbalance of all natural systems, which leads to a change in the regime of precipitation, temperature anomalies and an increase in the frequency of extreme events such as hurricanes, floods and droughts.
According to the Center for Hydrometeorological Service under the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the average temperature of the planet continues to grow and is already 1.02 ° C higher than that recorded in the XIX century (when global temperature changes began to be monitored). The threshold of one degree was exceeded for the first time in modern history.
Scientists agree that it is human activity – the burning of oil, gas and coal – that leads to a greenhouse effect that causes an increase in average temperature. Experts note that between 2000 and 2010, the most powerful increase in greenhouse gas emissions over the past 30 years has been observed. According to the World Meteorological Organization, in 2014, their concentration in the atmosphere reached a record high level.
If states do not begin to seriously deal with the problem of environmental protection, by 2100 the temperature on the planet can rise by 3.7-4.8 ° C. Climatologists warn: irreversible consequences for the ecology will come even with a warming of more than 2 ° C.
In order to draw maximum attention to climate problems, the UN has attracted not only politicians and scientists, but also celebrities, to the debate. In their statement, they warned that for the international community “the time of half measures and the denial of the problem of climate change” has ended. ”
If we do not tackle this problem now, then in the future we will face natural cataclysms and disasters of a planetary scale. The climatic zones will shift, the weather changes will become more severe (severe frosts, followed by sudden thaws in winter, an increase in the number of abnormally hot days in summer). The frequency and strength of abnormal phenomena such as droughts and floods will increase. The connection between climate change and the emergence of natural disasters was proved by American scientists who discovered traces of warming in the study of tropical cyclones in the Pacific, unusually high summer temperatures in Europe, China, South Korea and Argentina, and forest fires in the US state of California. Climate change has also catalyzed drought in Africa and the Middle East, snowstorms in Nepal and torrential downpours that have caused floods in Canada and New Zealand.
Storms, hurricanes, floods and droughts in the future can turn our planet into an untenable territory. So, some countries because of the increase in humidity and high average temperature already by 2100 may become unsuitable for life. According to a study by American scientists, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates and other countries of the Middle East are at risk. According to the calculations of climatologists, at the current rate of growth of greenhouse gas emissions by 2070 the average air temperature in the countries of the Persian Gulf can reach 74-77 ° C. This will make the territories unsuitable for people. An exception may be large megacities with a developed air conditioning system. But in them people will be able to leave the house only at night.
Because of this, thousands of species of flora and fauna will die out and a devastating blow to biodiversity will be struck.
According to some scientists, we are in the middle of the sixth in the history of the Earth mass extinction of species. And this time this process is caused by human actions. If climate warming does not stop, many ecosystems, the species of living beings that they contain, will become less diverse, less saturated. There are forecasts of extinction of up to 30-40 percent of plant and animal species, as their habitat will change faster than they can adapt to these changes.
UN experts warn that warming will negatively affect yields, especially in the underdeveloped countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, which will lead to food problems. According to scientists, by 2080 the number of people facing the threat of hunger can increase by 600 million people.
Another important consequence of climate change may be a shortage of drinking water. In regions with arid climate (Central Asia, the Mediterranean, South Africa, Australia, etc.), the situation will be further exacerbated by the reduction in rainfall. Hunger, water scarcity, and insect migration can lead to an increase in epidemics and the spread of tropical diseases such as malaria and fever in the northern regions.
Climate change can affect not only peoples health, but also increase the risk of political disagreements and conflicts for access to water and food resources.
One of the most tangible consequences of climate warming is likely to be the melting of glaciers and an increase in the level of the World Ocean. Millions of people on the coast will die from frequent floods or will be forced to relocate, UN analysts predict.
According to the expert community, sea level rise in the 21st century will be up to 1 meter (in the 20th century – 0.1-0.2 m). In this case, the most vulnerable are the lowlands, coastal areas and small islands. The first to enter the risk zone are the Netherlands, Bangladesh and small island states, such as the Bahamas, the Maldives. Significant territories can be flooded in countries such as Russia, the United States, Britain, Italy, Germany, Denmark, Belgium, Iraq, Thailand and Vietnam. Serious damage threatens China, where about 140 million people can lose their homes, and Japan, where it can flood more than 30 million people – a quarter of the countrys population.
According to most scientists, despite the complexity of the situation, the point of no return has not yet been passed and there are still chances. It is unlikely that climate change will completely prevent climate change. However, the international community is able to contain the temperature increase in order to avoid irreversible environmental consequences. To do this, it is necessary to limit greenhouse gas emissions, develop alternative energy and develop a strategy to reduce risks due to warming.
Plans to minimize damage from climate change, should cover all areas of human activities, including health, agriculture and infrastructure. In Kyrgyzstan, for example, the snow border in Tien Shan has risen, this caused problems with grazing – it is necessary to take measures to preserve pastures.
However, different states have different opportunities to level out the impact of climate change. For example, Holland and Bangladesh experience the same problems: there are more storms, the ocean level has risen. But in Holland there is already a plan of action, they know how they will strengthen the dams, where they will take the funds. And in Bangladesh, there is nothing of this, with 10 times the coastline and 10 times the population, and 100 million people live in hazardous areas, which will need to be moved somewhere.
Climate change is inevitable, but we can influence their speed and current and minimize their consequences. The main thing is not to miss the time and act together.