Wood carving in the works of the national master Abdullaev

Дата: 14 ноября 2017

          Резьба по дереву в творчестве народного мастера А. Абдуллаева Traditions of national art crafts are constantly evolving, reflecting in their forward movement those or other changes in society. Art carving is no exception. Today this form of art is filled with new content. In this area, the major specialists of their field work, who, while retaining the experience of the past, constantly innovate in their work. Abdugani Abdullayev, representative of the Kokand school of woodcarving, whose works are known both in the republic and far beyond its borders, belongs to such recognized masters. He perfectly possesses various methods of carving, including the complex technique of three-dimensional architectural sets - mukarnaskori used for the decoration of columns and cornices, as well as deep carvings with the development of a multifaceted relief.

          Over the past decade, they have created original products in the field of monumental carving, which served as the basis for awarding the honorary title of "Peoples Master of Uzbekistan". It is really usto - so they call in the East a master who has gained fame for his creativity, from whom take lessons of skill, are considered with his opinion. A. Abdullayev successfully collaborates with artists and architects, which helps him to make each of his creations unique and memorable. From year to year, interest in his work is growing, as is the number of admirers of his talent. Journalists and art historians write about him, he learns young people, taking experience and skill.

              The art of the master has reached a special scale after Uzbekistan gained independence, when significant changes began to take place in the cultural and artistic life of the country. At the initiative and under the leadership of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov many national traditions and customs were restored, monuments and memorial and architectural complexes were erected to the undeservedly forgotten and repressed sons of the Uzbek people. New streets and recreation areas, hotels and palaces have appeared, individual construction has expanded, in which artists and designers, masters of landscape and applied arts actively participate. Surprisingly integral and original architectural complexes and ensembles were created, in which the art of the architect and artist, designer and national master is harmoniously combined, reflecting the spirit of the new time and its changes. Again, the traditional art of wood carving became widely in demand, which was clearly demonstrated by A. Abdullaevs creative search and achievements. During these years he participated in the design of the most significant works, which became a reflection of new processes taking place in the country. Among them - Square of memory and honors (Tashkent), Museum of the memory of the victims of repression (Tashkent), Burkhaniddin Marginani Museum (Margilan) and a number of other buildings.Музей памяти жертв репрессий

                 In 1998, a grandiose memorial and architectural complex was built in the village of Khartang in the Chelek district of the Samarkand region in commemoration of the 1255th anniversary of the great theologian Imam Muhammad ibn Ismail Al-Bukhari. In its artistic and constructive design, the members of the Usto creative and production association, the Samarkand Ganch carvers headed by Usdo Saidali Mirzaev, the master of wood carving Jalaliddin Asadov, the master of majolica plates making Namangan Madaminjon Khusanov, the Tashkent masters of painting, carvers from Kokand. All the work related to the tree was carried out under the leadership of A. Abdullaev. In the group headed by him, the students also worked: D. Ochilov, E. Kuchkarov, R. Mamatkulov, D. Zhamshidov, J. Abdullayev, J. Isamiddinov, A. Khudoinazarov, A. Parpiev. In total, over 1,000 cubic meters of work were performed at the facility, including the construction of aivan, for which 75 carved columns with stalactite capitals and 35 doors were made. The ceiling was also designed, including the partitioning of the ceiling space into plafonds, their decoration with small semicylindrical plates (vassa, vassa-zhuft), as well as depressions in the form of stalactite cupolas (hauzak).

                The last method - ceiling dome-hauzak - A. Abdullayev applied for the first time after years of oblivion. This type of ceiling design was widely used in Uzbek architecture at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century: in the palace of the ruler Khudoyarkhan in Kokand, in the Balakhauz mosque in Bukhara and in the former house of the diplomat Polovtsev (now the Museum of Decorative and Applied Arts, Tashkent). In the Imam al-Bukhari complex, the wooden ceilings are divided into separate caissons (plafonds), eight of which are decorated with in-depth stalactite caves. Such a constructive design was a bright decoration of the ceremonial aivans. Star stalactites give the domes a peculiar effect of the sky.

                 The ceiling paintings were made by ornamentalists-nakkosh of Tashkent; they stressed the dynamic play of the lines of the beams and the vass, revealed the plasticity of the domes, gave them an elegant appearance. At the same carved columns with stalactite capitals and cornices were left without a painting and preserved the color of an unpainted tree. As a result, the color combines the natural texture of the material with the multicolor ceiling painting. The rich play of light and shade is here the main expressive means. Depending on the lighting and weather, the contemplation of the complex gives rise to different feelings and moods. A wide, spacious courtyard planted with shrubs not only emphasizes the unique spatial solution of the object, but also influences the surrounding atmosphere.

Музей памяти жертв репрессий               To commemorate the memory of our compatriots who died in World War II, as a sign of respect for the veterans of war and labor in the main square of Tashkent Mustakillik, a memorial and architectural complex was created - the Square of Memory and Honors. Its construction was preceded by a competition for the best project among architects. In the competition, the architect from the Tashkent city-planning institute V. Akopzhanyan won; Sketches for master A. Abdullayev were chosen for decoration. The basis of the composition of the complex is built in national style aivans (terraces), located on the north and south sides of the area, the length of which reaches 60 m. The complex consists of 32 aivans, with each region of Uzbekistan and the Republic of Karakalpakstan assigned to 2 such terraces. On the walls of each of them there are special deepenings - a current (niches) with an iron notebook, where the names of the dead are inscribed.

                   For the design of aivans, the master used painting, but in the ceiling grooves for the first time decided to apply carved patterns that predominate in the design of the complex. The carving also decorates the columns, while using the lower parts of the columns, the master used smaller ones, and larger patterns for the upper parts and cornices. In this case, the patterns each time look different, depending on their lighting.

                Nonstandard approaches are also in the design of the memorial complex Burhaniddin Marginani in Margilan, as well as the Museum of Remembrance of Victims of Repression in Tashkent. So, in the Burhaniddin Marginani complex, built on an artificial platform in the form of a round pavilion - a dump, the master for the first time creates a huge dome-shaped stalactite-wooden cornice - a sharafa, supported by high carved columns with stalactite capitals. In the Museum of Victims of Repression of the memorial complex "Shahidlar Khotirasi Maidoni" under the guidance of the master all artistic and constructive works connected with wood-and-wood materials were made. A. Abdullaev designed a four-sided columned gallery with a portal-like elevation in the middle - a kyvan and a two-row cornice. The Museum of the memory of the victims of repression was designed in the classical traditions of Eastern architecture. This is one of the best works of the master and his students. Assistants and students of the master - R. Mamatkulov, A. Khudoinazarov, J. Abdullayev (son of the master), Z. Ergashev, A. Turdiyev and others (about 30 people in all) performed wood-carved works, demonstrated high skill, rich imagination, thin scent of material and shape.

             The talent of the masters of arts and crafts, artists, sculptors, landscape architecture specialists and design of the Usto creative-production association, headed by the academician of the Academy of Arts of Uzbekistan, and the national master Abdurakhim Umarov plays an important role in creating an expressive image of this memorial complex. Their joint work became the basis for the synthesis of arts in the creation of a single complex of the museum. In the artistic and constructive decision of the aivan of this building A. Abdullayev used the experience of previous years, namely, the reception of the separation of the ceiling into separate caissons with decorative deepened stalactite domes in key places - above the entrance doors and in the corner joints of versatile galleries. In the decorative and artistic design, the possibilities of the art of wood carving are maximized. All architectural details of aivan - beams, cornices, columns and stalactite capitals - cover the carving in which the important expressive means is chiaroscuro. The rhythm of various parts of the design, the varied shapes, scales and proportions of the columns, capitals and cornices strengthen the expressiveness of the artistic image of the museum.Музей памяти жертв репрессий. Фрагмент

              The complex task of building a single complex of a building could be performed only with a skilful team of performers. Eight carved stalactite capitals of the kaivan columns, beams and entablature of aivan, panels and cornices decorated with plant and geometric ornaments were created by the masters pupils. More than 5000 semicylindrical plaques - a vass with carved ornament for decorating the ceiling of aivan - were performed by Tashkent masters under the guidance of S. Rakhmatullaev, and carved doors of the museum - by Tashkent and Samarkand masters. At the same time, the main emphasis of artistic expressiveness is on the design of aivan and kaivan.

                 Today, wood carving - one of the oldest kinds of applied art in the republic - receives new content and direction. The leading masters, preserving in their creative work the best achievements of the past, enrich them with new work experience. Experts such as N. Ibragimov, O. Faizullaev, S. Rakhmatullaev, H. Ganiev, H. Odilov, A. Azlarov and many others bring new content, plasticity, decorative elements, non-traditional composite solutions and volumes into the art of wood carving . The creative path of the Kokand master Abdugani Abdullayev is a striking example of this. The power and welfare of the state, the greatness of the people, their talent and aesthetic attitude towards reality are reflected in the best works of usto. Deeply studying the experience of his predecessors, enriching him with new approaches, motivations and ideas, Abdugani Abdullayev brings joy and inspiration to people, reflecting in his work not only the national ideal, but also the confidence of people in the future.

Nargiza Talipova

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