Shahrisabz is a town in Uzbekistan. It is located amid the luxuriant verdure of gardens on the upper reaches of the Kashkadarya. The numerous mountain streams that flow into the river’s main bed bring fertile silt as well as life-giving water. It was on the massive deposits laid down by the flow of water, which formed a small plain, that a local farming area came into being in ancient times. Within its boundaries, archaeological excavations have revealed a large number of settlements and estates belonging to ancient times and the Middle Ages.
By the end of the 19th century, a number of local schools of embroidery had developed in Uzbekistan. On the one hand, they had much in common as regards the nature of their compositions and ornamental decor; on the other, they differed because of their own, unique features and the variety of ways in which decorative motifs and colouring were handled. The embroidery of Shahrisabz (Kashkadarya Region), one of the oldest towns in Central Asia, is of particular interest. It was given its name, which means “green town” “thanks to the abundance of greenery and eye-dazzling flowers” (1, p.20). Shahrisabz was the property of the Barlas clan, to which Amir Timur belonged.
Among various fields of the decorative applied art of Uzbekistan the embroidery occupies a special place. It closely links to the life way, rituals and traditions of the people. Traditions of the embroidery go back to the centuries. Almost each woman was a mistress of needlework. From the childhood girls studied this art. As a rule embroideries were made for home but not for sale. Embroidered pieces were wide used in rituals, what caused their various types. Thus, by the wedding ceremony a young bride should embroider tubeteykas, towels, belt-shawls – belbags, handkerchiefs, a small prayer carpet – djoinamaz and others. The needlewomen filled up each thing with their hopes, wishes and dreams.
The national costume is one of the brightest expressions of material culture. Age-long traditions and customs of the people, wonderful weaving art and aesthetic priorities typical of each regional culture have found their reflection in it. It is a truism that clothing of inhabitants of different regions of Uzbekistan differed. Clothing of Surkhandarya people, and first of all of the Kungrats, is especially interesting. However, the traditional costume of inhabitants of the Surkhandarya valley has not be studied fully yet.
A newborn baby was named in Arab – Zakhir ad-Din Mukhammad, members of his family used the short Uzbek – Babur that is “Tiger”, “Lion”. The founder of the Temurid Empire in India became famous for his construction activity. Gardens, roads, memorial structures, mausoleums and mosques became material signs of this activity. In bright and sometimes sharp history of these monuments, the researchers have lost, and sometimes interpreted in false way, the recondite “architecture of seclusion”, which adds new bright facets to Babur as a great person. In addition, his successors developed this architecture further.
Architectural monuments of Bukhara preserved on its territory are valuable contribution into world art treasury. The richest historical and cultural heritage of the city gives evidence for achievements in the field of architecture and city planning as well as rich information on main periods in progress of architectural decor.
At the Institute of Archaeology of the Academy of Sciences of RUz in Samarkand there is an unusual Samanid coin of 969-970 with the names of amir Mansur ibn Nukh and Akhmad ibn Mansur on. This is a copper felse of traditional Muslim style but with square sign having non-Islamic symbolics. Inside of the circular inscription there is a square framed with linear text.
Nowruz is the traditional Iranian festival of spring which starts at the exact moment of the vernal equinox, commencing the start of the spring. It is considered as the start of the New Year among Iranians. The name comes from Avestan meaning "new day/daylight". Noruz is celebrated March 20/21 each year, at the time the sun enters Aries and Spring begins. Noruz has been celebrated for at least 3,000 years and is deeply rooted in the rituals and traditions of the Zoroastrian religion.
Archaeological excavations on the territory of early medieval Tokharistan have given the richest material for specification of its art culture. Today the richest database relates to the local Buddhist art. An important found, which, we think, characterizes another line of art, the secular, is the wall painting at the fortress of Tavka, being a part of a fortification system of Nonidakhon, a customs house locating to the south of the Iron Gate nearby the exit to the valley of the Sherabad Darya from Sogd. E. Rtveladze discovered it in 1987; for 1989 – 1993 Sh. Rahmonov had been excavating there.